by Kalman Klim Brattman
Give me the simplest form of matter and motion,
and I will construct, out of them, the world of Nature.
"Give me matter, and I will construct a world out of it."
Immanuel Kant, Kant's Cosmology
("Universal Natural History and Theory Of Heavens")
10. On the Primal Particles of Nature and Their Opposed Primeval Imprints: Gravity and Heat

Holeons in
a baseholon.


In a previous page, we have seen, through the
1st FUTOS, how a spinning solid xenobase (XB) mass was able to be transformed into a permanent spinning xenofluid (XF) mass --the spinoflon (sFL). Now, in Prena, we have recognized that the most general gliding base-level blocks are not the solid XB-blocks, but are the baseholons (BHLs) that are XB-blocks that contain in them "holes" of xenovoid (XV) called holeons (Øs), figure at left. Some of the baseholons (BHLs), in their gliding motions, will collide one into another or collide with other gliding XB-blocks or gliding spinoflons (sFLs). The collisions --the master agents of Creation that are at an angle are the most interesting ones because they will generate a spin --the primal tool of Creation.

It is the scope of this page to investigate such a spinning baseholon (BHL), called spinoholon (sHL), and focus our attention on its holeons (Øs) to investigate INTO WHAT they can transform into. That investigation of the holeon transformation is indeed most fundamental as from there, and nowhere else, all primary particles of Nature --the primons (PRIMs) must emerge.
primons (PRIMs) reside at the baselevel (BALE) line of Nature, alternatively they are called baselons (BALs).



In studying the transformation of a holeon (Ø) in a newly formed
spinoholon (sHL), two cases can be distinguished:
   i) one, where the axis of spin (AOS) of
sHL is in the interior of the holeon (Ø); and
 ii) the other, where it is not.

To the holeon's surface , we can associate two (2) facets:

• one, towards the interior facing the void or the xenovoid (XV) of the interior of Ø --the internal facet denoted with i; and
• the other, towards the exterior of Ø facing its surrounding environment --the external facet denoted with

As the
baseholon (BHL) begins to spin transforming itself first into an embryonal and then into a developed spinoholon (sHL), two (2) corresponding distinct phases emerge to exist as described in the 1st FUTOS: the nano and the perma phases respectively, with the 1st phase corresponding to the inception of the spin that accelerates and lasts until it reaches its permanent constant speed level, followed by its 2nd phase that is characterized by its reached constant speed level.

Now, in this study, our interest is studying how a holeon (Ø) transforms and evolves from its original state of existence into its ultimate form of existence.

CASE i): AOS inside Ø (AOSØ).
(Note: The original holeon Ø can be of any shape and thus not necessarily the one represented in here in the blue contour.)

As the baseholon (BHL) begin to spin, by the 1st FUTOS, two inertial body forces begin to act concomitantly: the radial centrifugal (CF) force and, the transversal Euler (EUL) force. By the Parallelogram Rule, the combination of those inertial body forces will generate the introduced slantifugal (SF) force.

That SF-force, now in the nano phase, will push-in the holeon's surface with various intensities because the Euler (EUL) force varies with the distance from the axis of spin (AOS) of the spinoholon (sHL). As a result of that push-in of the SF-force, the surface of the holeon (Ø) will transform now into an uneven xenofluid (XF) surface. That uneven XF-surface of the holeon will now split into its two existing facets: the internal (i) and the external (e) ones.

While the external facet e will stay put (as being part of the spinoholon's xenofluid mass that is subject to the global influence dictated by XEBA), the internal facet i of will begin, by RENO, advancing inwards and transforming itself into a homogeneous xenofluid (XF) surface in the shape of a spheroid called spherolon.

A split picture begins thus to emerge in the nano phase (and preserved in the perma phase) through a twofold scenario with respect to the detachment of the internal facet (i) from the external one (e) of the holeon's newly formed xenofluid (XF) surface, as follows:

.i) on one hand, its internal facet i, as it begins to shrink by RENO, it will leave behind a xenobase (XB) cushion called the xenobase buffer zone and denoted as XB-BUZO. As the internal facet i advances inwards and shrinks, its accumulated surface density is being consumed by the ever expanding volume of the XB-BUZO left behind.
.As such, at the very beginning of its shrinkage, its surface density stays at its bottom value --the xenobase (XB) surface. However as the shrinkage of the internal facet i continues unabated, its surface density (now a xenofluid) begins to increase due to the decrease of the XB-BUZO's expansion.
. The shrinkage of i cannot go on indefinitely and it will stop when its XF-surface density reaches its critical maximum value dictated by its acquired resistance to compression (RECO). The internal facet i is said now to have become saturated transforming itself into a xenogel (XG) surface.

.ii) on the other hand, because of the dominance of the CF-force that springs from the interior of the holeon (Ø), its external facet i will be able to stay put and acquire through XEBA its corresponding xenofluid (XF) surface density.

The resultant that emerges from the above twofold split scenario is as follows:

aka Electron

A physical ball-point (to be differentiated from a mathematical point), called pointelon, has been created whose surface is xenogel (XG) and whose interior is a minute xenovoid (XV).

That newly assembled formation of a pointelon surrounded by a XB-BUZO, could be called

     either bufferlon (BUFF) to reflect its buffer zone,

     or excessotron to reflect its excess of energy due to the xenogel (XG) surface of its core.

The TRUTON's bufferlon/excessotron is the today's called electron (EL) whose name was first introduced in 1894 by George Johnstone Stoney to denote the "atoms of electricity." Therefore, the
pointelon represents the core of the electron while the surrounding XB-BUZO is what is known today as the electron's charge or load.

Thus, the emerging structure of the electron is that it has a core (vested in the pointelon) surrounded by a permanent charge or load (vested in its surrounding XB-BUZO). Since that charge lowers the global ergolevel (erL) of the electron through the existence of the xenobase (XB) buffer, we can associate to it, the negative deficit sign. Viewed through that deficit vista, electrons can also be called negatrons.

A vista summary of the electron's connotations just introduced is noted below:

Electron's Vista Summary:

  • Viewed through the bufferlon's vista, we get a glimpse at the electron's repelling property, at close distance, due to the existence of its buffer zone --the XB-BUZO.
  • Viewed through the excessotron's vista, we get a glimpse at the electron's energetic capability and influence as an ergopeak (erP).
  • Viewed through their negative charges, electrons can be called alternatively as negatrons.

Foundational Remark:
The pointelon just introduced is in TRUTON a foundational element and, as such, before going any further, we make below this foundational detour:



On the Physical and not Mathematical Substratum of Nature 

Before continuing with this study, it is perhaps appropriate to stop here and enter into a small, but most important foundational detour by noting that in TRUTON, always a differentiation is being made between the mental mathematical world (or any other mental world) and the real physical world of Nature. In TRUTON's introduced parlance, that differentiation between the real physical objects of Nature and the mental ones was expressed through realtons versus mentalons, respectively.

As such, the physical point --the pointelon and the mathematical point can be viewed as mirror images from two different worlds: one --material, the other mental. Using again the TRUTON's introduced parlance, the mental mathematical point is being viewed as an imagetron transposition of the Mind to the Reality and vice versa.

And that transposition point-pointelon is possible to take place because of a bridge of communication (BOC) that can be established between the mathematical point and the physical pointelon via a common denominator (CODE) which exists and vested in
  • that they represent the smallest entities in their respective worlds and,
  • that they cannot be divided into smaller entities as they are both are undivisible.

From that
CODE however those two entities that emerge, the point and the pointelon, diverge into two totally different contrasting tracks as represented below:

The Point Concept of Mathematics
The Pointelon of TRUTON

1. The point has not a real existence in Nature being a position or a location, but not a real "thing," being only a mental entity residing and existing only in the Mind.

1'. The pointelon has a real material existence in Nature that exists independently from our own existence. The pointelon is definitely a real material "thing."

2. The point is dimensionless since is a place and not a "thing."

2'. The pointelon is dimensional being the smallest material entity of Nature.

3. The point has no structure or contour.

3'. The pointelon has an interior made of xenovoid (XV), and a surface made of xenogel (XG).

4. The point has no shape.

4'. The pointelon is of spherical shape.

5. The point has no affinity of any sort towards the (mathematical) space that is in as, by being an exclusive creation of the Mind, its existence is not being controlled by the space in which it resides.

5'. The pointelon, is a creation of Nature and, as such, it has an indestructible and intertwined affinity towards its environmental xenofluid (eXF) medium that is reflected in its physical characteristics and behavioral properties.

6. The point is completely inert in its (mathematical) space as no interaction exist between itself and the type of space that is in.

6'. The pointelon always is able to sense its environmental xenofluid (eXF) medium because of the bridge of communication (BOC) that exist between itself and its eXF medium.

7. The point is unchangeable as it will always remain the same regardless of the type of (mathematical) space that is in.

7'. The pointelon can change its configuration and transform itself into something else pursuant to the influence dictated by its eXF medium.


Aside from the physical point of Nature --the
pointelon, another foundational physical entity that we have encountered was the physical surface, called now the surfalon, to differentiate it from the mathematical concept of surface.

Again, as in the pair point-pointelon, we can establish the pair surface-surfalon as representing the mirror image of their identical functionality from two different worlds: one --mental hosted by the Mind and Mathematics, the other --material surface hosted by Nature and Physics. That transposition between Mind and Reality and vice versa is possible because of the common denominator (CODE) which exist betwwen them encapsulated as dividers or separators between
  • either the interior and the exterior of an object,
  • or between various regions of the space itself.

Again, from that
CODE however, those two pair-entities that emerge, the surface and the surfalon, diverge, upon formation, into two totally different tracks that contrast as represented below:

The Surface Concept of Mathematics
The Surfalon of TRUTON

1. The surface is devoid of any materiality and exists only as a mathematical boundary of a 3-dimensional volume or as a divider of a 2-dimensional plane.

1'. The surfalon has a real material existence in Nature that exists independently from our own existence, does not exist as a space divider per se, but exists only as a separator between the interior and the exterior of a material object.

2. The surface is devoid of thickness.

2'. The surfalon has thickness that can expand and contract as dictated by its environment and/or the interior of a material object.

3. The surface has no inner structure between its inner and outer facet.

3'. The surfalon has an inner underneath xenobase (XB) structure that exists between its inner and outer facet.

4. The surface can have a multitude of shapes that Mind can devise that is subject only to mathematical constrains.

4'. The surfalon shape is derived exclusively from the outer shape of Nature's material objects and nothing else.

5. The surface has no affinity of any sort towards the (mathematical) space that is in.

5'. The surfalon has an interwoven affinity with both its environmental xenofluid (eXF) medium and the interior of the material object that is a part of it, as it is being reflected in its physical characteristics and behavioral properties.

6. The surface is completely inert in its mathematical space as no interaction exist between itself and the space that is in.

6'. The surfalon always is able to sense both, its environmental xenofluid (eXF) medium and, the interior of its material object that is part of, via its respective external and internal facets.

7. The surface, once created, it always will remain the same in the mathematical space that it was created.

7'. The surfalon can change its configuration and transform itself into something else pursuant to the influence dictated by its eXF medium.



Continuing with the introduced electron (EL), we now make note of these immediate findings through these basic characteristics (BACHs):

The 1st
Basic Charactheristic (BACH) of the Electron
Electrons are stable permanent particles.


The proof rests in the recognition placed in
FUROR (through the lens of CODEC).

We start by noting that the grain of the fabric of the electron's charge (or load) --the XB-BUZO is of radial (RADI) nature while the grain of xenofluid (XF) of the spinoflon (sFL) is of transifugal (TRANSI) nature. As such, because of that discrepancy, the RENO of the xenofluid (XF) of the spinoflon (sFL) will not be able to influence the existence of the electron's XB-BUZO.

Finally, the core of the electron --the pointelon is kept intact due to the fact that its xenogel (XG) surface is being secured --through RENO-- by the minute xenovoid (XV) of its inerior.


The 2nd Basic Charactheristic (BACH) of the Electron
Electrons, at close range, repel each other.

The proof is straightforward due to the existence of the electron's sustained buffer zone --the XB-BUZO.

The 3rd
Basic Charactheristic (BACH) of the Electron
Electrons, by their own nature, are vibratory particles.

The proof is based on the fact and recognition that the electrons are ergopeaks (erPs) which, as already noted, are vibratory by their own nature. Their bufferlons (BUFFs) permanently are vibrating, as they continuously oscillate minutely between their two neighboring states of existence --the xenobase (XB) and the xenothin (XT).

The 4th
Basic Charactheristic (BACH) of the Electron
On the Duality Particle-Wave Behavior of the Electron, And
Of the Purported Mystery of Electron Behaviour in the Double Slit Experiment
That Ushered the Birth of a Nonsensical Quantum Mechanics


The Double Slit Experiment with electrons, viewed today as the greatest mystery in Physics, can, in fact, with ease be explained using our acquired picture of the

The particle-wave duality of the electron's characteristic is easily understood from the fact that its core is a particle vested in the pointelon that is surrounded by a xenobase (XB) buffer zone --the XB-BUZO that is eminently compressible.


PS. The great purported enigma of Physics, which the late Richard Feynman has called it "the central mystery" of Quantum Mechanics, was recently articulated, in a popular TV show, by a well-known American science peddler, Brian Greene of Columbia University. There, he noted that contrary to our intuition, electrons that are fired to pass through two slits, will not leave just two (2) bands on the barrier board --as expected, but it will leave five (5) bands, as illustrated by him below.
.How such a thing was possible?, has been the 90-year old perplexing foundational question of Quantum Mechanics that begged indeed for an answer. The OBE British theoretical physicist Jim Al-Khalili of the University of Surrey even had suggested that resolving that mystery of Physics through common sense and logic is a sure thing of landing on a Nobel Prize [sic!].
Brian Greene explaining to an American televised audience the great and perplexing "mystery" of science...


The rather simple logical explanation of that purported "fundamental mystery of Nature" lies in the particle-wave duality that is being carried by the electron's (pointelon)+(XB-BUZO) combined contribution.

Two (2) band imprint characteristic to particle behavior
(that for the
electron is being carried by its pointelon)
Three (3) band imprint characteristic to wave behavior
(that for the
electron is being carried by its XB-BUZO)
Total bands generated by the electron: 2+3=5. Mystery resolved.


.1. In the wave behavior of the electron, we note that the smaller the slit, the greater the angle of the spread is going to be. And that is because the smaller the slit, the greater the squeeze of the XB-BUZO is and, as such, the greater his spread is going to be --by RENO-- upon the passage of the slit.
.2. Placing and plugging-in a detector or any other plug-in device is an absolute no-no for this type of experiment because of the interference and perturbance created as recognized first by Werner Heisenberg through his Observational Indeterminacy Principle (OIP). He also brilliantly revisited this subject of the observer's interference in his 1933 Nobel address and lecture stressing the recognition of the observer effect when we enter into the particle world of Nature --in general, and that of the electron --in particular.


CASE ii): AOS outside Ø (AOSØ).
(Note: The original holeon Ø can be of any shape and thus not necessarily the one represented in here in the blue contour.)

As in the previous case i), in the nano phase, the holeon's surface with the rest of the spinoholon's mass will transform into a non-homogeneous xenofluid. However, once in the perma phase, an entirely new dynamics is at work as follows:

By RENO, as the internal facet i of the holeon's surface begins to move inwards transforming itself into a spherolon, the external facet e will no longer stay put, but it will immediately follow suit. And that is because the centrifugal (CF) force of the spinoholon (sHL), as is no longer radial and springs from the holeon's interior, will not be able to have a hold on the holeon's external facet e.

Let us now note that the inward speed of advancement of the internal facet i is greater than the one of the external facet e which immediately follows. And that is because RENO will have a much greater strength for the internal facet i that faces the xenovoid (XV) in comparison to its influence on the external facet e that faces the xenobase (XB) which was left behind by the moving i.

From that recognition dictated by RENO, of the difference in speed that exists between the two facets of , it follows that a xenobase (XB) buffer zone (XB-BUZO) will exist between those two facets. The self-shrinkage of those two facets is done at a speed reflecting the opposition or the resistance generated by RECO which increases in strength with the increase of the facet's surface density.

The self-shrinkage of i will stop when the increasing strength of its RECO will catch-up and equals with that of its RENO, i.e., when the internal facet i becomes a xenogel (XG) surface. Any additional squeeze of that XG-surface will transform its surface into a xenorigid (XR) surface provided that the strength of that additional squeeze is greater than the magnitude of the existing RECO.

As such, upon the stoppage in movement of the internal facet i, the external facet e that follows, called coverlon (COV), continues however with its inward motion by its inertia through INFO. The result of that inertial advance and inward push is manifesting its exxistence
  • FIRST, in the squeeze of the existing XB-BUZO between the two faces leading to the additional self-compression of the coverlon (COV) that transforms ultimately into xenogel (XG) surface; and
  • SECOND, in the impingement into the internal facet i that can result, as noted,

    a) either in having an impact, if enough inertial momentum exist to overpower its resistance to compression (RECO), transforming thus the internal facet i into a xenorigid (XR) surface and, call such a particle a hardtron (HD) or ergotron (ERT);
    b) or in having no impact, leaving to stand unchanged the internal facet
    i with its existing xenogel (XG) facet and, call such a particle a softelon (SL) or ergolon (ERL).

Both those particles, the hardtrons/ergotrons (HD/ERL) and the softelons/ergolons (SL/ERL), called collectively the pulsagons (PUGs), have a common characteristic namely, that they, in their influx phases, generate a continuous inflow field, called INFI, that is punctuated, at periodic intervals of time in their outflux flashes, with the release of a bursting package of energy radiation called ergon.

The pulsagons (PUGs) are thus particles in a permanent influx state punctuated by periodic outflux bursts of radiation.

The Bucket

That characteristic of a pulsagon (PUG) of generating a continuous inflow and releasing periodically a "packet" of radiation is similar, in a strange way, with that of a bucket whose bottom is supported by a spring that will open when the bucket is full with, say, water.

Indeed, in such a visualization and strange comparison where water is being visualized as a field, we have a continuous flow of water flowing into the bucket which, at periodic intervals of time, releases abruptly, at its bottom, a "packet" of water.

The "packet" of water that periodically is being released by the bucket at its bottom, in this strange water-field visualization, is the ergon field, while the continuous flow of water entering into the bucket is visualized as being the INFI field (that happens to represent, in the end, the gravitational field --GRAFI, as noted below).


Max Planck
Before going any further, let us note that the introduced ergon field radiation is indeed Max Planck's monumental recognition of 1901 [see, his paper "On the Law of Distribution of Energy in the Normal Spectrum," Annalen der Physik, vol 4, p. 533 ff (1901)] that the thermal or caloric radiation is "punctuated" through "packets" of energy that he called them "energy elements." Those energy "bundles" became "quanta" of energy that eventually ushered the birth of Quantum Mechanics that now degenerated from a physical theory into a Hocus-Pocus Mathematical Mechanics of the Irrational.

The ergon thermal radiation, known today as the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, erroneously is being attributed as the remnant of the bogus speculative Big Bang cosmological model of the Universe. No such a Big Bang creation ever existed in Nature!

Again, let us repeat it one more time that

No such a fictional nonsensical Big Bang model responsible for the creation of our Universe, or any other universe, ever existed in Nature!

And sadly, let us also repeat one more time Max Planck's pointed remark that

"A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents finally die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it."

The photon (whose name was coined in 1926 by Gilbert N. Lewis for the smallest unit of "radiant energy") appears to be a good fit for a particle belonging to the softelon/ergolon (SL/ERL) family.




On the Propagation of Light

How light propagates in the cosmic space?, is a simple question to ask that appears to be no longer in any dispute. However its answer emerging from TRUTON is in stark contrast to the current prevailing view that, among other things, consider light to be able to travel through an absolute vacuum (AVA) unabated.

When an object moves in a vacuum, by inertia, that moving object will continue unabated with its motion. However, for light we do not have such a scenario notwithstanding its corpuscular characteristic. And that is because the photons (which make the light) engage in a certain behavioral pulsating property that it will be lost when entering into a vacuum domain. That is to say that light entering into a vacuum domain will cease to exist transforming itself into something else. Let us see if we can figure out what that "something else" could be.

Well, a photon entering into a vacuum domain will continue, by inertia, with its motion, but its pulsating characteristics will vanish transforming itself into an inert pointelon xenobase doughnut-shaped blob, called blobnut, whose XV-interior is being preserved. So, in a vacuum domain, light ceases its existence transforming itself into a train of invisible blobnuts.
Is this the only thing about this subject of light propagation in vacuum that we would like to say? Not really, and here we go...

1. For starters, absolute vacuum (AVA) does not exist in Nature and, apparently Aristotle was the first, some 2000 years ago, to recognize this and which was reinforced anew by Newton. [See, in that respect The Newton-Aristotle Exclusionary Principle (NAEP).]

2. In modern time, a prime experimental result, knowing today as Casimir effect (after Hendrik Casimir) clearly shows that the known vacuum is not devoid of everything due to the fluctuations that were able to be detected. As such, nowaday to the vacuum is being associated the recognition as having in it some sort of energy. The vacuum energy concept that currently is being employed clearly supports the view of NAEP that in fact the absolute vacuum (AVA) does not reside nor exist anywhere in the space of Nature.

3. In TRUTON, this point of the non-existence of an absolute vacuum (AVA) is clearly noted when we define the concept of Nature. In TRUTON, the existence of the absolute vacuum (AVA) is being introduced as a given entity in Prena (pN) --the preexisting Nature. When Prena transforms itself into the embryonal Nature (eN), the absolute vacuum (AVA) transforms into xenovoid (XV).

4. It is essential to keep in mind that all material objects derive their behavioral characteristics from the relationship that they can establish with their ergo environmental medium. If no such medium is present and thus if that medium is the absolute vacuum (AVA), then no such behavioral properties can exist. All that has been posted in the 11th UTPOT coupled with The Aristotle-Newton-Archimedes Principle (ANAP).

5. To somehow assume that in an absolute vacuum (AVA), material objects can preserve their physical behavioral characteristics is to us such an absurdity that, to use Newton's words, "no man, who has in philosophical matters a competent faculty of thinking, can ever fall into it." And yet, exactly such an absurdity with respect to the propagation of light in vacuum current exists. The space of Nature does not contain anywhere true, absolute vacuum --an entity devoid of everything, but its own existence.


Through the eye of TRUTON, the centuries old perplexing particle-wave duality of the photon and thus of the light is brutally simple in its explanation. There is no "particle" nor "wave" in the TRUTON scenario. What we have here is solely a behavioral characteristic of a pulsagon (PUGand nothing else! And such a photon behaves like a particle before its coverlon (COV) splatters and disperses behaving like a wave propagating (radially) into its environmental xenofluid (eXF)!

With that recognition in place, we can confirm indeed the dual particle-wave like behaviour of the light with the
Newton-Planck Conjecture:

 A corpuscular particle (using Newton's terminology) emits intermittently "packets" of energy (using Planck's terminology).

Thus, the wave-particle behavioral characteristic of light is thus finally understood and resolved in a rational straightforward fashion.


Arthur Compton
And speaking of the nature of light, Arthur Compton was able to recognize, through his experiments leading to what is known today as the Compton scattering, that the properties of light cannot be explained solely as a wave phenomenon as its behavior indicate that light consist of particles if we are to explain the low-intensity Compton scattering. Light, therefore must behave as if composed of particles-like quanta as envisioned by Planck in a wave-like fashion whose energy is proportional to the wave's frequency. As such, we expand the Newton-Planck conjecture into confirming the:
Newton-Planck-Compton Principle:

 Light is a stream of corpuscular (Newton) particles emitting intermittently quanta (Planck) of energy in a particle-wave phenomenon (Compton) whose energy is proportional to its wave's frequency.

Remark 1: Light, because of its corpuscular characteristic, as already noted, of course will bend around Sun or any other star and that is not because of Einstein's lunatic theory of gravity, but is because of Newton's theory.


Werner Heisenberg

Remark 2: Werner Heisenberg in his 1933 Nobel lecture "The Development of Quantum Mechanics" used Compton scattering result to cement his staggering and far-reaching recognition with respect to his Observational Indeterminacy Principle (OIP).

Above, we have noted on the behavioral commonality of the two families that make the pulsagons (PUGs), now we will reveal how those families (the hardtrons and the softelons) differ in their "visibility" or better, in their detectability.



As oppose to a
hardtron/ergotron (HD/ERT), a truly remarkable property of a softelon/ergolon (SL/ERL) particle is its elusive nature of blending seamlessly into its environmental xenofluid (eXF) medium as outlined below:

Softelons/Ergolons as the Hidden Particles Of Nature

.In a xenofluid (XF) medium, regardless of its specific density, particles whose surfaces are also made of xenofluid (XF) become impossible to be differentiated or telling apart from the rest of their environmental xenofluid (eXF). As such, we call those indetectable elusive particles as the hidden indetectable (HIDIN) particles of Nature. The real existence of those elusive HIDIN particles is established through the reaction of their environmental xenofluid (eXF) towards them.

In that respect, a softelon/ergolon (SL/ERL), whose surface is xenogel (XG) is indeed such a HIDIN particle of Nature.


Ernest Rutherford  

  On the other hand, the hardtron/ergotron (HD/ERT) whose surface is xenorigid (XR), is indeed a "visible" or detectable particle in its environmental xenofluid (eXF) medium. In fact, that particle is the today's named proton (PR) whose name was coined in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford.

.We say that the proton (PR) becomes saturated when it has acquired its xenodense xenofluid coat --the coverlon (COV), and becomes naked when it has lost its coverlon (COV).

The phase in which the proton is acquiring the coverlon (COV) is called the proton's influx phase and the moment at which the proton becomes naked and the coverlon (COV) burst out is called the proton's outflux moment.

The proton's acquired COV represents the proton's load or charge. We attribute to that charge the positive sign, because the coverlon (COV) created (that represents the proton's charge) elevates the proton's global energy level as it becomes saturated.

The influx-outflux interchange between the naked and the saturated proton producing the called gamma-ray radiation within an atomic nucleus generates the nucleus internal atomic (NIA) energy.
Upon the break-up of an atomic nucleus, the
NIA-energy will be released generating a burst of gamma-ray radiation. Radioactivity, radioactive decay, or the nuclear fission --are all phenomena that are accompanied by the release of the NIA-energy.

Two or more protons (PRs) that emit their respective coverlon (COV) at the same identical time are said to be equiphased. Protons that are not equiphased are said to be outphased. As such, two or more equiphased protons repel themselves, while the outphased protons will attract themselves.

By the 5th FURON, through the ergoleveling process, outphased protons that are in contact will transform themselves into equiphased protons and hence, by 5th FURON, they will now repel themselves. That appears to be quite problematic in the formation of an atomic nucleus if all the touching protons, within it, will fly apart! Thus, in stable atomic nuclei, its outphased protons cannot touch each other! That implies that another particle must exist in an atomic nucleus that acts somehow as buffer or a briddge between outphased protons. And that particle, as you perhaps may have guessed is the neutron to be identified below.


A proton (PR), in its influx phase, that was able to acquire an electron (EL) is said to have become bloated (or elongated). A bloated (or elongated) proton is the today's neutron (NE) (whose existence was postulated in 1920 by William Draper Harkins and discovered experimentally in 1932 by James Chadwick).
.We say that the neutron (NE) is a proton-onto-electron (PROEL) interlock.

Remark: As we shall see in the next page, "free" neutrons, as opposed to the ones incorporated into atomic nuclei, are not capable of retaining their identities as they transform back into a naked proton and an electron.
.As such, because neutrons (NEs) are composite particles that cannot retain their identities when are "free," they are not considered to be part of the primal particles of Nature, i.e., not part of the primon (PRIM) family.


Protons (PRs), in addition, exhibit interlocking properties not only with electrons, but also with neutrons generating the proton-onto-neutron (PRONE) interlocks. The double PRONE interlocks (i.e., 2PR+2NE) are known today as the alpha particles that could be seen in the alpha radioactive decays.

Remark: In a stable atomic nuclues a symbiotic relationship between outphased protons and neutrons (NEs) exists: the protons are able to preserve the neutrons' stability while neutrons are able to create bridges between them, keeping the outphased protons separated one from another. Thus, an atom (i.e., a chemical element) can have a variable number of neutron-bridges in its nucleus, i.e., can have a number of isotopes.


With the above rather vague picture just created, we can nevertheless draw, in addition, certain important inferences, as follows:

Based on the recognition that the equiphased protons repel, while the outphased ones attract, stable atomic nuclei must be made only of outphased protons.

  • As such, the introduction, out-of-the-blue, of the postulated willy-nilly "strong force" of unknowing origin to "explain" the binding of protons together in an atomic nucleus is no longer necessary... The neutron-bridges are the key players, in there, in keeping the outphased protons together...
  • Natural radioactivity occurs for the atomic nuclei that incorporate two or more equiphased protons...
    - There must exist a finite maximum number of
    outphased protons that a stable atomic nucleus can sustain...
    - Natural radioactivity occurs only in those chemical elements whose atomic nuclei exceed that
    maximum atomic number (Z)...
    - Apparently, that upper limit number is 82 because beginning with the next chemical element (that is Bismuth) whose atomic number is 83, the natural radioactivity starts to show up. All chemical elements following Bismuth must, as well, display natural radioactive activity...
  • Induced radioactivity occurs when stable atomic nuclei are being infused with radiation energy that are able to dislodge one or more neutron-bridges from their location leading one or more outphased protons to close-in and get themselves in contact one to another, transforming them therefore, by the ergoleveling process, into equiphased protons that will become ejected from the nucleus...
    As such, the introduction, out-of-the-blue, of the postulated willy-nilly "weak force" of unknowing origin responsible for mediating the radioactive decay is superfluous and thus, is no longer necaessary...
  • Both phases of a proton's life (its influx phase and outflux flash) in a spinning system are being subjugated by the dominant centrifugal (CF) force that, through its increase in strength, can generate and trigger the rupture or the splitting of atomic nuclei, called nuclear fission... A number of nuclear centrifuges, worldwide, are designed with that end in mind...

The protons (PRs) and the electrons (ELs) when viewed through the lens of being mass particles, are being called collectively also as the masstrons. They are indeed the ultimate bottom level seed-particles from where all mass objects of Nature are being born. And because they reside at the baselevel of Nature, masstrons alternatively are called basetrons (BATs). Within the employed "base" terminology, basetrons (BATs) are thus a subclass of baselons (BALs).

Remark: Neutrons (NEs) because, as noted, are not primal particles, but composite particles containing one naked proton interlocked with an electron). These composite masstrons are called masscotrons or simply masscots.

 On the so-called "God Particle":
.The so-called speculative Higgs boson particle assumed to exist (dubbed also as the "God Particle"), purported to have been discovered at CERN, and considered somehow to be responsible for the mass creation in the Universe --whatever the meaning of that nonsensical purported mass creation may be, is to us such an absurdity, that no sane person could possibly fall into that black mental hole, provided that no brainwashing was administered and sustained.
.God, if there is one, is having a field day in seeing all that "God Particle" absurdity that is taking place in the nowadays brainwashed "new" Physics of the Tau Tau Quantum Cartel!


  Pulsagons as Generators of the Primal Gravity and Energy Radiation in Nature  
.Pulsagons (PUGs), as we have seen, are characterized by generating a continuous inflow field, called INFI, that is punctuated, at periodic intervals of time, by the release of a bursting package of energy radiation called ergon.

The INFI is what is known today as the gravitational field (GRAFI) while the outward burst of energy radiation that comes in lumps of packages, called ergon, is the outward ergoenergy radiation (ERGORA).

Now, because of the HIDIN characteristics of the softelons,, we associate to them (as oppose to hardtrons) this truly remarkable recognition:
The Seventh Foundational Universal Recognition Of Nature (7th FURON): 
Softelons/Ergolons as Generators of the Elussive Gravity and Energy Radiation in Nature

The GRAFI and ERGORA generated by the softelon/ergolon (SL/ERL) particles, because of their HIDIN charactheristic, are said to be hidden. That is to say that we can talk about a hidden gravity and a hidden energy radiation that exists in Nature.

Remark: These new concepts and findings introduced herein are the counterpart of the existing speculative dark matter, dark energy, dark gravity, dark flow, and so on.

Addendum to the 7th FURON

The GRAFI and ERGORA generated by a proton, by being a detectable particle, is said to produce a visible or ordinary gravity and energy radiation.

Before going any further, an important recognition that needs to be made is with respect to the stability and permanency of the
pulsagons (PUGs) in Nature. As such, we post now
The Eight Foundational Universal Recognition Of Nature (8th FURON): 
Pulsagons as the stable permanent particles of Nature.

The proof of this proposition is similar to the one provided for the electrons in the 1st BACH by noting now that the grain of the fabric of the coverlon (COV) is radial (RADI) while the grain of xenofluid (XF) of the spinoflon (sFL) is transifugal (TRANSI). Because of that grain discrepancy, their corresponding RENO (radifugal, and transifugal), as noted in FUROR, by acting on different platforms, will keep unperturbed the pulsagons (PUGs) in their existing xenofluid (XF) medium.

Fundamental Deductive Remark: The stability of pulsagons coupled with the one of electrons, establishes now the permanency of primons in Nature.

Last, but not least, we want to cement Newton's monumental recognition with respect to the natural instantaneous response of gravity (NIROG).

The pulsagons (PUGs), that generate both the visible and the invisible gravity, are particles that independently one from another generate the inward field springing from their material environmental medium (MEM). A such, irrespective of the distance between them, pulsagons (PUGs) respond to their MEM in the same fashion concomitantly.

This in turn creates the appearance that gravity is being transmitted instantaneously and thus having an infinite speed. But that is not so at all.

  • FIRST, in Nature we do not have infinite parameters as those parameters can exist, in a meaningful way, only in Mathematics.
  • SECOND, gravity is not being transmitted in any way and hence, we cannot talk, in a meaningful way, about a "speed of gravity." Gravity does not have a speed of propagation (SOP) as it is not a flow of any sort. What gravity is, as stated, is a MEM response to the existence of PUGs --a response that acts instantly and concomitantly.

    We mark NIROG as Newton's Universal Gravitational Principle in
    The Ninth Foundational Universal Recognition Of Nature (9th FURON): 
    Newton's Universal Gravitational Principle

    Gravity (visible and invisible) is generated by pulsagons (PUGs) that generate in their material environmental medium (MEM), in unison, an influx field called the gravitational field.

    Fundamental NIROG Remarks:
    The gravity, by not being a flow of any sort, does not have a speed of propagation (SOP) as its gravitational field, measured through its resultant provided by the Newton's formula of universal gravitation, acts instantaneously due to the concomitant influence of pulsagons.

    By the way, as already noted, Newton's formula of universal gravitation is noting else but a geometrical application (in an Euclidean space) of a point source (S) spreading its influence equally, in all directions, obeying the Inverse-Square Law of Nature (ISLON).

     2. The Newton's formula of gravitation (at left), reveals, in a subtle way, the fact that gravity exists only in a material environmental medium (MEM) that only the xenofluid (XF) can provide. And that is reflected in its introduced gravitational constant G that is actually not quite a constant being a function of the density gradation of the environmental xenofluid (eXF) medium as derived in the 1st FUTOS.

    The gravitational constant G, regarding of its fluctuated value at a large cosmic scale, is always a non-zero quantity reflecting the fact that the bottom environmental material density in Nature is furnished by the non-zero density of the xenobase (XB). For the absolute vacuum medium (AVAM), that gravitational constant G is zero, reflecting the fact that gravity does not exist in an AVAM.

    Since 2015, a number of experimental data have surfaced revealing the fluctuation characteristic of the gravitational constant G with various speculative out-of-the-blue nonsensical reasonings of the data obtained. See for instance, the 2015 posting in <phys.org> entitled "Why Do Measurements of the Gravitational Constant Vary So Much?" by Lisa Zyga or the 2015 paper of J. D. Anderson, et al. entitled "Measurements of Newton's Gravitational Constant and the Length of Day" in EuroPhysics Letter (EPL) 110 (2015) 10002.

    Continuing with our primeval recognitions, we now note

    The Fundamental Eye-Opener Remark:
    On the Electrical Parity of the Electron (EL) with that of the Proton (PR)
    .Let us note that the proton's load or charge which is vested in its COV, when decompressed, becomes identical to the electron's charge vested in its xenobase (XB) BUZO. In other words, the electron and the proton carry the same quantity of xenosubstance (XS) in their loads or charges. And that is because those respective charges spring from one and the same entity that has two different forms of existence: the XB-form vested in BUZO and, the compressed XG-form vested in COV!

    WOW, WOW, WOW! For the first time, we are able to see now WHY the magnitude of charges (or loads) of the electron and proton are equal. A truly spectacular vista has just opened in front of our eyes...

    Now, moving on, we note that primons (PRIMs), by residing at the base level of Nature, could be called alternatively as baselons (BALs). This new alternative name is important as it recognizes their "bottom" place of residence in Nature.


      On the Properties of Characterization of Primons    
    .From the 11th UTPOT and its ANAP and FUCO, we know that primons do not have, per se, any inborn properties of characterization and that, all their properties are nothing else but expressions of the relationships that they can establish with their environmental xenofluid (eXF) medium.

    The electron (EL) is a xenogel (XG) ball whose interior is xenovoid (XV) and whose exterior is surrounded by a xenobase (XB) buffer zone. The outer layer of that buffer zone is the holeon's original external facet of --the e. That xenofluid (XF) surface of e that is kept by XEBA, will have the tendency by RENO to squish the holeon's XB buffer zone. Since a XB-block has a minimum resistance towards compression, the holeon's XB buffer zone (BUZO) will be able to be preserved up to a point. If that XB-resistance of BUZO is being brocken, then the xenobase (XB) BUZO will be transformed into a thin xenofluid (tXF) BUZO. However, that minute transformation of XB into tXF will not be able to be maintained because of XEBA.

    A perpetual minute dance to-and-fro between XEBA and RENO will take place generating the permanent scintillation of the BUFFs buffer zone. That permanent scintillation charactheristic of a buffertron's buffer zone (XB-BUZO) makes the electron (EL) a scintillating particle that now could be renamed, viewed from this "lens," as the scintitron.

    Asides from the electron's scintillating characterstic, another straightforward characteristic generating from its xenobase buffer zone (XB-BUZO) is that, at close range, as noted above in the 2nd BACH, is a repellant. Viewed from that repellant characteristics, an electron could be renamed as the repeltron.

    Notwithstanding electron's repellant characteristic, the electron and the proton do not permanently repel themselves. And that is because, the proton in its influx phase of existence will exert a "suck-in" influence around it, generating attraction rather than repulsion. So, during that period, attraction will exist between those two masstrons --the electron (EL) and the proton (PR).

    On the other hand, in the proton's outflux moment of its flash, the attraction between those two BATs is being transformed into repulsion as both display now repellant characteristics.

    So, a rather complex and intricate attraction-repulsion relationship is being established between the electron and the proton. That pull-push influence exerted by the proton will generate the complex zigzag motions of the electrons within atoms --a subject of a next page.

    Fundamental Baselevel Remark:
    Now, that we have discovered the types of primons (PRIMs) that can be formed at the ultimate baselevel line of Nature, we are able to add a most profound recognition associated to the 5th FURON in the establishment of a common denominator (CODE) between the primons and their environmental xenofluid (eXF) through ergoenergy (erE).

    Primons, as we now undoubtedly recognize, from the
    5th and 7th FURONs, have a line of communication with their xenofluid environment via their common denominator (CODE) that the ergoenergy (erE) can provide. That affinity that exist is further magnified for the already analyzed primons as they present a considerable interest due to the fact that they are the primary seeds of Nature's development and evolution.

    At the nano-scale, the proton's inner contribution is indeed truly spectacular. There, the proton is able to create in its influx phase a gravitational field and, in its outflux flash a caloric field.



    G. W. F. Hegel
    That dual recognition is trully monumental leading us to understand how stars have been formed in Nature and, to see how Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's staggering pronouncement encapsulated in his dialectical principle of transition from quantity to quality that "quantitative change leads to qualitative change" is being mirrored in Nature at its base-level platform of Creation:

    As a mass is being increased through accretion via collisions, the new mass number of protons will be increased as well, generating thus an intrinsic increase in both its created gravitational and caloric fields. And, as that mass increase continue to take place, the temperature of that mass will continue to increase as well. Hence, there will exist a point when that temperature will become so big that, by the Pop-Up Principle Of Creation (PUPOC), a new qualitative "hot" plasma object will be born, held by its own created gravity. That emerging object is indeed a newly formed "active" cosmic star.

    Remark: Hegel's dialectical principle of transition represents a magnificent refutal to those that have embraced Quantum Mechanics whose foundation is based on the concocted premise, as noted, that the human Mind is biologically limited and incapable to deal, on a rational basis, with phenomena to which it has not been previously exposed.

    Now, we elevate and transcend from Mind to Nature Hegel's "quantity-quality" Transitional Principle into
    The Sixteen Universal Transcendental Principle Of TRUTON (16th UTPOT):
    On the Universal Transitional Principle Of Creation (UTPOC)

    A quantitative physical parameter cannot increase nor decrease indefinitely without leading to the creation of a qualitative change via the Pop-Up Principle Of Creation (PUPOC).

    At the macro-scale, two masses therefore will seem to attract each other, because between them, a "corridor" of a lower densilevel than the rest of the surrounding eXF will be formed. Thus, those two masses are being forced by their surrounding eXF, through RENO, to "slide" towards each other generating the gravity or the gravitational attraction. Therefore, the observable or visible gravity is born out of proton's influx phase and is being sustained due to the fact that all stable atomic nuclei are permanent ergoholes. At the same time, the hidden or elusive gravity, is born out of the same process through the existence of HIDIN particles.

    Let us now note that pulsagons (PUGs), once formed, become self-propellant particles generated by their two dynamic phases of existence, their influx phase and outflux flash. By the fact that the xenofluid (XF) medium of the spinoholon (sHL) where the pulsagons (and thus protons) reside is not a homogeneous medium as the density of that XF-medium increases outwards from sHL's axis of spin (AOS), it follows from the 1st FUTOS and GUTOM, that the protons and atomic nuclei (which contain, imbedded in them, protons), will generate a radial high-energy particle radiation.
    That high-energy radial particle radiation generated in a spinoholon (
    sHL) from its axis of spin (AOS) is what today is being called as the "mysterious" cosmic ray.


    As we have seen, the holeon transformations were able to open for us an unprecedented vista towards the absolute "bottom" of Nature where the primal particles of Nature --the
    primons (or baselons) are being formed. Before going any further and leave this page, we may want to add a few more things.
    We cannot help, but marvel again at the spectacular vista that the pulsagon (PUG) was able to provide for us. The pulsagon's extraordinary versatility vested in its attributes and capabilities that we just have discovered, so far, are being further emphasized by noting
    • that the pulsagon, through its influx period and outflux moment interchange, is able to generate intermittently both the gravitational (G) and caloric (C) fields. Those G and C fields, which are antagonistic one to another as they act in opposite directions (with caloric radiation acting outwards and the gravity acting inwards), represent the two major inner opposing players in Nature. The balance of those two base field forces governing Nature at its baselevel state, called the base ergofield balance of Nature (BEBON), essential in keeping in place the integrity of atomic nuclei, springs from the regonition that their base origin is one and the same --the pulsagon;
    • that pulsagons, through their created Gravitational (G) and Caloric (C) fields, are responsible, through the accretion of matter via collisions, for generating the formation of stars in Nature;
    • that the primal pulsagons derived from holeons, by being self-propellant particles, will generate the primal dynamics of pulsagons (PDP). That PDP significantly enhances the pulsagon's pivotal role in shaping up the evolutionary course of Nature. And that is because the primal outcome that emerges from PDP is the creations of the entire spectrum of new primons! In other words, all new primons can be formed only through the existence of the moving pulsagons! All that and much, much more is part of the next page.



Kalman Klim Brattman
Under Construction